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Organizational information: President transition 2022

CBSA organizational chart

President CBSA
Erin O Gorman (DM-02)

Executive Vice-President
Ted Gallivan (DM-01)

Legal Counsel
Executive Director and Senior General Counsel
Julie Watkinson

  • Vice-President, Special Projects
    Jacques Cloutier (EX-05) [Redacted]
    (Duties not classified)
  • Special Advisor to the President
    Stephen Scott (EX-03)
    (Interchange Out)
  • Chief of Staff
    Jag Johnston (EX-02)
  • Vice-President, Intelligence and Enforcement Branch
    Vacant (EX-05)
  • Vice-President, Human Resources
    Louise Youdale (EX-04)
  • Vice-President, Strategic Policy
    Scott Millar (EX-05)
  • Vice-President, Commercial and Trade Branch
    Fred Gaspar (EX-04)
  • Director General, Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive
    Marianne Thouin (EX-03)
  • Vice-President, Finance and Corporate Management Branch and Chief Information Officer
    Jonathan Moor (EX-05)
    (Duties not classified, upcoming fall Treasury Board (TB) submission)
  • Associate, Chief Financial Officer
    Andrew Francis (EX-04)
    (Pending classifications alterations, upcoming fall TB submission)
  • Vice-President, Chief Information Officer, Information, Science and Technology Branch
    Minh Doan (EX-05)
    (Pending classifications alterations, upcoming fall TB submission)
  • Deputy, Chief Information Officer
    Kelly Bélanger (EX-04)
    (Pending classifications alterations, upcoming fall TB submission)
  • Vice-President, Travellers Branch
    Denis R. Vinette (EX-05) [Redacted]
    (Duties not classified, upcoming fall TB submission)
  • Associate Vice-President, Travellers Modernisation
    John Ommaney (EX-04)
    (Pending classifications alterations, upcoming fall TB submission)

Executive biographies

Ted Gallivan

Executive Vice-President

Ted Gallivan was appointed Executive Vice-President of the CBSA on .

Prior to his appointment, Mr. Gallivan served as the Assistant Commissioner of the Compliance Programs Branch at the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) from to , and as Deputy Assistant Commissioner of the Compliance Programs Branch and of the Taxpayer Services and Debt Management Branch from to .

He began his career with Customs and Excise in 1991 as a summer intern at the GST Interim Processing Centre. Since then he has gone on to hold a number of senior positions at the CRA.

Mr. Gallivan holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from Concordia University.

Scott Millar

Vice-President (Strategic Policy Branch)

Scott Millar joined the CBSA in , as Vice-President of the Strategic Policy Branch. He is also the Agency Champion for Indigenous Peoples, as well as the CBSA's GBA Plus Champion.

In his previous role as the Deputy Chief of Policy and Communications at the Communications Security Establishment (CSE), Mr. Millar led CSE's efforts in domestic and international policy and partnerships (foreign intelligence, cyber security and cyber operations), ministerial and parliamentary affairs, strategic and business planning, external review support, legal disclosure, and communications and media relations.

Previously, Mr. Millar held executive positions at both the Treasury Board Secretariat and the Privy Council Office. He also served as the Senior Advisor to the Vice-President (Policy and Programs) at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and as Acting Director of International Relations at FINTRAC, Canada's anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing agency. Scott began his public service career in 1997 as a policy analyst within the Anti-Organized Crime Division at the former Department of the Solicitor General (now Public Safety Canada).

Mr. Millar holds a Master's degree in Political Science and a Bachelor of Arts (High Honours) in Psychology from Carleton University, and has earned certificates from McGill University, the Canadian Foreign Service Institute and the Canadian Forces College. He has also published on issues surrounding ministerial accountability.

Jonathan Moor

Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer (Finance and Corporate Management Branch)

Jonathan Moor joined the CBSA as Vice-President, Finance and Corporate Management Branch and Chief Financial Officer in . In this role, Mr. Moor provides national leadership for the Agency's financial administration, security and professional standards, infrastructure and environmental operations, contracting and material management, recourse and complaints.

Prior to joining the CBSA and coming to Canada on an interchange program with the UK Government, Mr. Moor held a number of senior executive roles in the UK's Department for Transport, where he was appointed to the Main Board in 2013, responsible for Resources and Strategy.

In 2009, Mr. Moor was the UK's Director General for Civil Aviation responsible for aviation security and facilitation, air service negotiations, and consumer, environmental and regulatory policies. He was also Vice-President of Eurocontrol and of the European Civil Aviation Conference; and Chairman of ICAO's Evaluation and Audit Advisory Committee.

Mr. Moor trained as a Chartered Accountant in the private sector with Touche Ross & Co (now Deloitte), before moving to District Audit in 1992, and then the Audit Commission to work in a number of senior financial and corporate roles. In 2000, he was appointed as their Finance Director. In 2003, he joined the UK's Department for Transport as Group Finance Director of the Driver, Vehicle and Operator Group, before moving into a policy and program management role as Director of Airports Strategy in 2006 (responsible for the third runway program at Heathrow airport).

In the 2011 New Year's Honours List, Mr. Moor was awarded a CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire) for services to aviation. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales and he has a Bachelor's degree in Geography from the University of Kent at Canterbury.

Louise Youdale

Vice-President (Human Resources Branch)

Ms. Louise Youdale joined the CBSA as Vice-President of Human Resources in .

Ms. Youdale has over 20 years of executive leadership experience, including time in both the private and public sectors. Prior to joining the CBSA, she was the CIO and Director General, Information Management and Technology at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, where she had also been Chief Human Resources Officer and Director General of Human Resources.

Ms. Youdale's extensive experience in human resources also includes roles supporting organizational success at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (DG, HR Operations / Client Services), the National Research Council (VP, HR), Alterna Savings and Alterna Bank (Senior VP, HR) and several other organizations.

She has dedicated her career to working with leaders to build organizational capability, shape culture and optimize performance.

Ms. Youdale holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree with a concentration in Human Resources Management from Bishop's University.

Minh Doan

Vice-President and Chief Information Officer (Information, Science and Technology Branch)

Mr. Minh Doan was appointed Vice-President and Chief Information Officer of the Information, Science and Technology Branch (ISTB) in .

Since joining the CBSA in 2014 as the Director General of the Business Applications Services Directorate, Mr. Doan has also taken on the role of interim Vice-President of ISTB from until and Director General of Enterprise Architecture, Information Management and Common Services from September to .

Mr. Doan has over 24 years of private and public sector experience in leading enterprise IT projects, improving the efficiency of IT and aligning IT with business operations.

Before joining the CBSA, Mr. Doan was an Executive Director at Employment and Social Development Canada where he led major business and technology transformation projects. Prior to that, he worked at the Privy Council Office (PCO) on Administrative Services Review and government-wide IT strategies to transform service delivery to Canadians. He has also progressively held more senior positions at Service Canada and Bell Canada.

Mr. Doan has a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science from the Université du Québec and a certificate in Leading Change and Organizational Renewal from the Harvard Business School.

Denis R. Vinette

Vice-President (Travellers Branch)

Mr. Denis Vinette is the Vice-President of the Travellers Branch and has enjoyed a distinguished career in border management spanning 29 years at the CBSA.

Prior to his current role as Vice-President of Travellers Branch, Mr. Vinette had been the Associate Vice-President of the Operations Branch since 2016.

Mr. Vinette was hired in 1992 as a Customs Inspector in Prescott, Ontario. He joined the management ranks when he became a Customs Superintendent in Cornwall and then the Chief of Operations at Macdonald-Cartier International Airport in Ottawa.

Mr. Vinette gained experience in increasingly senior management positions, including those of Director, Border Enforcement; Director, Personnel Security and Professional Standards; Director General, Strategic Planning and Integration; Regional Director General, Northern Ontario Region; and Director General, Border Operations Directorate before becoming Vice-President.

Mr. Vinette has been recognized for his service, having been awarded a 2005 Public Service Award of Excellence, and in 2012, he was given both the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal and the Peace Officer Exemplary Service Medal.

Mr. Vinette has a Bachelor of Social Sciences, with a concentration in Criminology and Psychology from the University of Ottawa.

Fred Gaspar

Vice-President (Commercial and Trade Branch)

Fred Gaspar was appointed as Vice-President of the Commercial and Trade Branch in .

Prior to his role as Vice-President, Mr. Gaspar was the Director General responsible for the Commercial Program Directorate, Commercial and Trade Branch.

Mr. Gaspar joined the CBSA in from the Canadian Transportation Agency, where he served as the Chief Compliance Officer from to . In that role, he held corporate responsibilities for various industry regulatory determinations related to Canada's federally-regulated transportation regime.

Before that, he held senior positions at the National Capital Commission, InterVISTAS Consulting, The Air Transport Association of Canada and Air Canada.

Mr. Gaspar graduated from the University of Western Ontario and is a member of the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Planning.

Carl Desmarais

Acting Vice-President (Intelligence and Enforcement Branch)

Mr. Desmarais joined the CBSA in 2008 as part of the Corporate Affairs Branch. Since 2011, he has held numerous executive positions within intelligence, security and enforcement functions, most recently as the Director General of Enforcement and previously as the Director General of Transformation, Planning and Integration. Throughout, he has led efforts in: strategic and business planning; performance measurement; project management; program management and delivery; and, transformation and change management.

Previously, as Executive Director, Mr. Desmarais led the transformation of Canada's immigration detention program through the implementation of the National Immigration Detention Framework, a priority initiative designed to improve conditions of detention and related infrastructure.

Mr. Desmarais began his public service career in 1999 as a Special Assistant for the Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs and then as Legislative and Regional Assistant to the Minister of Immigration and Citizenship. Between 2003 and 2008, he also occupied various positions at the Canada Revenue Agency.

Mr. Desmarais holds a Master's degree in Public Administration from the École nationale d'administration publique and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from the University of Ottawa.

A father of two, Mr. Desmarais enjoys golfing poorly, cycling leisurely and skiing awkwardly while always successfully embarrassing his son and daughter.

Marianne Thouin

Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive and Senior Officer for Intrenal Disclosure (Internal Audit and Program Evaluation)

Ms. Thouin is the CBSA's Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive and Senior Officer for Internal Disclosure.

Ms. Thouin was appointed as the Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive on . In this capacity, she oversees an independent internal audit function and a neutral program evaluation function. Each provide important information to support management's oversight and decision-making responsibilities.

Ms. Thouin is also the Senior Officer for Internal Disclosure. In this role, she gives employees a confidential way to report wrongdoing, as defined in the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act, outside the chain of command.

Ms. Thouin joined the CBSA in 2004. She has held various leadership roles across the agency. In recent years, she served as the Senior Director of Internal Audit (2016 to 2021) and the Director of Audit and Evaluation Professional Practices (2013 to 2016), where she played a key role in helping to improve agency programs and processes.

Ms. Thouin holds a Bachelor in Psychology from the Université de Montréal and is a Certified Government Audit Professional.

Jacques Cloutier

Vice-President, Special Projects

Mr. Jacques Cloutier was appointed as Vice-President, Special Projects on , after having served as the Vice-President of the Intelligence and Enforcement Branch since .

Prior to the above roles, he held several senior executive positions with the CBSA such as Vice-President and Associate Vice-President of Operations Branch and Director General, International Region.

Before coming to the CBSA, he also held a number of senior executive positions related to national security at Public Safety, the Privy Council Office and the Communications Security Establishment.

Mr. Cloutier began his professional career in 1987, and as a reservist deployed to the former Yugoslavia as part of the United Nations Protection Force Canadian contingent. Upon completion of this mission, he joined the United Nations Volunteers and later the UN Department of Peace Keeping Operations as a civilian member and as a technical advisor in the context of peacekeeping missions in Africa's Great Lakes region and in Angola.

In 1995, Mr. Cloutier joined the Organization of American States and was part of the joint OAS/UN human rights mission in Haiti. His work involved the investigation of human rights violations alleged to have been committed by Agents of the State, capacity building and strengthening of government structures, principally in the policing, judicial and detention sectors.

Mr. Cloutier is a graduate of the Université de Sherbrooke and joined the Public Service in 2002, after completing a Master's Degree in Business Administration.

Andrew Francis

Associate Chief Financial Officer

Mr. Andrew Francis was appointed Associate Chief Financial Officer in .

Since joining CBSA in 2019 as the Deputy Chief Financial Officer and the Director General of the Resource Management Directorate, Mr. Francis took on the expanded role of including the Planning and Results units as part of the team.

Before joining the CBSA, Mr. Francis was the Chief Financial officer of Canadian Heritage from to , during the lead up and the celebration of Canada's one hundredth and fiftieth anniversary. Prior to that, he worked in various executive positions at Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, primarily in finance functions that covered the whole breadth of the finance discipline within the federal public service.

Mr. Francis has both a Bachelor's degree in Commerce (High Honours) with concentrations in Accounting and Finance and a Master of Business Administration from Carleton University and holds a Certified Professional Accountant designation; he is a Fellow of the Chartered Public Finance Accountants and is a Certified Internal Auditor.

Kelly Belanger

Associate Vice-President and Deputy Chief Information Officer (Information, Science and Technology Branch)

Ms. Kelly Belanger was appointed Associate Vice-President and Deputy Chief Information Officer of the Information, Science and Technology Branch (ISTB) in .

Ms. Belanger is an executive with almost 20 years of experience in the federal public service, who thrives on challenges and learning opportunities by working with colleagues and key stakeholders to improve upon current business processes. She has extensive knowledge and experience working with modernization and transformation projects in the federal government as well as the private sector.

Ms. Belanger joined the CBSA as the Director General of the Travellers Projects Portfolio Directorate in . The directorate was restructured in to become the Projects and Service Management Directorate. Her team was responsible for the consistent delivery of ISTB commitments, including the planning, controlling, and execution and support of all IT and IT-enabled projects, initiatives and services across all business lines. As a result, consistent application of project management standards were implemented for the delivery of technology and services. In this role, she actively collaborated with stakeholders and delivery agents internal to ISTB, as well as within and outside of the Agency.

Prior to joining CBSA, Ms. Belanger worked for 5 years at Service Canada and 10 years at Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), on government-wide modernization projects. She also spent 8 years in the private sector prior to joining the public service, working as an Engineer and IT project manager.

Ms. Belanger is a Professional Engineer with a degree in Geophysical Engineering from Queen's University and a Project Management Professional (PMP) certification.

John Ommaney

Associate Vice-President, Travellers Modernization

Mr. Ommaney is currently the Associate Vice-President, Travellers Branch at the Canada Border Services Agency. In this role, he leads the Agency's traveller modernization efforts.

Mr. Ommaney has spent more than 20 years in the Canadian Public Service, working primarily in the security and intelligence community. In 2000, he joined the Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada – Canada's Anti-Money Laundering and Anti-Terrorist Financing Agency. He spent 10 years at the Communications Security Establishment in a number of managerial and executive roles, largely in the IT security space. He has also worked at National Defence and the Treasury Board Secretariat before joining the Canada Border Services Agency in the fall of 2019.

Mr. Ommaney has a BA from McGill University, an MBA from Queens University and is also a Certified Management Accountant. He is married with 3 children.

Branch integrated business plans: Overviews of key branch priorities

Travellers Branch overview


Denis R. Vinette, Vice-President
John Ommanney, Associate Vice-President

  • Sharon Spicer, DG
    Travellers Operational, Guidance and Support
    COVID-19 Border Task Froce
  • Jag Johnston, DG
    Travellers Policy and Programs
  • Andrew Lawrence, DG
    Travellers Transformation

Branch priorities

The Travellers Branch (TB) will continue to develop and implement its longer term Transformation Strategy to address the efficiency, sustainability, and ongoing modernization of the travellers continuum. As part of its lessons learned through the COVID-19 pandemic, TB will improve through:

  • a flexible Workforce Management strategy that enables the Agency to reposition human resources, as required
  • Workplace Readiness, through a strategy that identifies the process and requirements to create a safe and secure workplace that respects public health
  • Operational Agility, through a clearly defined process for the development and communication of new guidance to the frontlines in response to fluctuating border measures

The Branch's objectives are delivered in large part through the Regions and front-line Border Services Officers.

The Travellers Branch has 5 strategic objectives:

  1. Enhancing Partnerships and Policy to better support program modernization and position Travellers Programs for the Border of the Future
  2. Improving Border Management Capability through new technology, automation, data assessment measures, as well as implementing infrastructure and policy improvements to expedite traveller processing and ensure resources are responsive to evolving border management priorities
  3. Advancing Border Modernization, including evolving the strategies and applying the tools to achieve a "Right-Touch" Service Delivery Model
  4. Supporting our Frontline to improve Border Services Officer capability and capacity to deliver efficient and effective border management services
  5. Enhancing Safety and Security for Canadians through timely and effective border enforcement and service delivery improvements

Strategic Policy Branch overview


Scott Millar, Vice-President

  • Jeff Carr, A/DG
    Justin Ikura, ED
    Chief Data Office + Office of Biometrics and Identity Management
  • Caroline Jacques, DG
    Strategic and Horizontal Policy
  • Caroline Marchildon, DG
  • Natasha Manji, DG
    Kate Binnie, ED
    International Policy and Partnerships
  • Richard St Marseille, DG
    Immigration and External Review Policy
  • Dan Proulx, ED
    Information Sharing, ATIP, Chief Privacy Office
  • Julie Aceti, DG
    Traveller, Commercial, and Trade Policy

Branch priorities

The Strategic Policy Branch (SPB) will focus on continuous business improvement and innovation, while supporting the Government of Canada's COVID-19 recovery plan. It has 4 key priorities for the 2022 to 2023 fiscal year:

  1. Putting people first to ensure an effective and sustainable organization
  2. Supporting the Agency's modernization agenda (traveller and commercial modernization agendas, asylum and immigration initiatives)
  3. Advancing reconciliation with indigenous peoples
  4. Strengthening policy development capacity to be more forward-looking by enhancing strategic and horizontal relationships and data

In tandem with the four overarching priorities, SPB will also prioritize initiatives across 4 mandate areas:

  1. Transformational policy: continue strengthening immigration and asylum policy, develop sound policies to optimize the flow of travellers and trade, and provide strategic advice on the Agency's policy agenda
  2. International leadership: continue lead role in implementing policies with an international component, and facilitate operational and strategic activities abroad to advance Government of Canada priorities
  3. Strategic engagement: take a proactive and strategic approach to communications to address emerging issues and highlight the Agency's success stories through public and internal engagement and clear messaging
  4. Data and technology enablement: pivot resources to prioritize strategic and enabling initiatives that drive data governance and modernization, and establish Agency's capacity, capabilities, and framework for the use of biometric solutions to advance program priorities

Human Resources Branch overview


Louise Youdale, Vice-President

  • Claudette Blair, DG
    Classification and Staffing Programs and Services
  • Jennifer Bitz, DG
  • Natacha Prudent, DG
    Management Cadre Programs and Services
  • Kerry Colpitts, DG
    Operational Excellence, Innovation and Branch Planning
  • Gloria Haché, DG
    Training and Development
  • Julie Burke, DG
    Welness, Labour Relations and Compensation
  • Leah Campbell, A/DG
    Workforce Planning, Policies and Programs

Branch priorities

The Human Resources Branch (HRB) will focus on 3 key priority areas, as defined below.

  1. Operational Priorities: HRB will continue to deliver ongoing HR services and programs to meet the needs of CBSA clients, manage existing backlogs in HR services, and support CBSA projects and priorities
  2. Transformational Priorities: the Branch will advance the HR Plan for Sustainability and Modernization and the Modernization Agenda
  3. People and Culture Priorities:
    1. build a healthy, safe and respectful workforce that is free of harassment, violence and discrimination
    2. ensure a diverse and inclusive workforce reflective of Canada's population
    3. build CBSA's desired culture to have a shared sense of purpose, value and care for others, and a psychologically safe workplace

Specifically, in fiscal year 2022 to 2023, HRB modernization efforts will focus on:

  • implementing a new organizational structure to support a refined operating model
  • simplifying existing processes
  • better equipping staff with standardized tools and job aides
  • making information more accessible through strategic use of Apollo and other networks
  • introducing technology and automation to ease the workload burden on employees and improve service delivery

Commercial and Trade Branch overview


Fred Gaspar, Vice-President

  • Mike Leahy, A/DG
    CBSA Assessment and Revenue Management (CARM)
  • Shawn Hoag, DG
    Commercial Program
  • Doug Band, DG
    Trade and Anti-dumping Programs
  • Mike Junek, DG
    Transformation, Planning and Projects

Branch priorities

The Commercial and Trade Branch (CTB) has 3 tiers of priorities, each of which include key activities and deliverables for fiscal year 2022 to 2023, outlined below.

Tier 1: Items with clear linkages to Key Leadership Priorities for next fiscal year:

  1. Maintain Operations while managing emerging issues
  2. CARM Implementation to improve revenue collection at the border
  3. Develop a Cloud-based application to effectively respond to growing challenges to E- Commerce (B21 initiative)
  4. In partnership with other government departments, identify and intercept goods entering Canada that were produced using Forced Labour
  5. Cross-Border Interdiction of inadmissible goods and contraband addressing issues such as opioids, guns and gangs, and African swine fever

Tier 2: Key Commercial Modernization deliverables, such as Budget 2021 priorities and the Postal Modernization Initiative to modernize postal operations in Montreal and Toronto.
Budget 2021 key initiatives include:

  • Increasing capacity in trade risking
  • Digitizing the anti-dumping and countervailing program
  • Secure corridor and commercial lane enhancements
  • Cargo preclearance

Tier 3: Internal business needs focusing on program integrity and process improvements in three areas – modernization, compliance, and program management. Some key activities include Marine Port Modernization, Trade Compliance Strategy, and Canada-United States- Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) Implementation, to name a few.

Intelligence and Enforcement Branch overview


Carl Desmarais, A/Vice-President

  • Carl Desmarais, DG
  • Mike Bisson, A/DG
    Intelligence and Investigations
  • Raffi Bedrossian, DG
    Transformation, Planning and Integration

Branch priorities

The Intelligence and Enforcement (I&E) Business Line (BL) works with partners to protect the safety, security and economic prosperity of Canada by enforcing immigration, customs and border laws fairly, effectively and with professional excellence. I&E identified top BL risks that could adversely impact our ability to deliver on our mandate including: COVID-19 Recovery; Human Resources – Capacity; IT – Data Integrity; Functional Management Model; and, Healthy, Diverse and Inclusive Workforce. To address these risks, multi-year priorities that are operational, transformational and organizational in nature were designed in order to deliver nationally consistent and focused results:

Operational Delivery:

  • Continue to advance the immigration enforcement programs to meet both risk and volume based demands
  • Intelligence and investigation programs effectively disrupt organized crime, with a focus on contraband and irregular migration
  • National Targeting Program communicate timely targets and risk assessments that meet client needs


In contributing to CBSA Modernization, I&E is delivering on key projects such as:

  • Digital Transformation Roadmap
  • Security Screening Automation
  • National Targeting Centre (NTC) Transformation


Central to the delivery of our priorities will be to ensure I&E is well-led, managed and trusted by its workforce, clients and partners in alignment with functional management by:

  • Maximizing operational results through strategic management of our workforce, financial resources, and programs and continuing to build a united and resilient team through leadership in engagement, governance and culture change
  • Improving operational results with strengthened international and domestic partnership

Information, Science and Technology Branch overview


Minh Doan, Vice-President and Chief Information Officer
Kelly Belanger, Deputy Chief Information Officer

  • Antonio Utano, DG
    Border Technologies Innovation
  • Gino Lechasseur, DG
    Enterprise Collaboration and Digital Services
  • Dave Beach, A/DG
    IT Solutions and Operations
  • Patrick Mineault, A/DG
    Projects and Service Management
  • Dave Thompson, DG
    Science and Engineering
  • Sarah Lawrence, A/DG
    Strategic Management and Support Services

Branch priorities

The Information, Science and Technology Branch (ISTB) focuses on the following projects and initiatives:

  1. The Rationalization and Optimization (R&O) and Application Modernization projects aim to address the Agency's technology debt and provide a foundation for modernization
  2. The Digital Workplace initiative aligns with the Government of Canada's digital direction and is foundational to building a modern workplace that supports digital productivity and collaboration, as well as the hybrid work model. This work has been accelerated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and includes business process modernization, and wide-scale culture change
  3. The Accessibility and Adaptive Technology Program is being initiated to support the IT Pillar in the Agency's Accessibility Strategy for identifying, removing and preventing barriers to accessibility for all Canadians as it pertains to information and communication technologies

To deliver its Strategy, ISTB has identified four (4) priorities in the service delivery area:

  1. Deliver IT Enabled Projects to continue to strengthen project management capacity to ensure sound project delivery, project governance and oversight
  2. Cyber Security to protect Agency information and IT-enabled operations, through reinforcing the culture, the resources, the training, the governance and the reporting surrounding cyber security
  3. Stabilize and Modernize IT Ecosystem to enable the Agency to maximize benefits from its technology portfolio by addressing weaknesses across applications, services, and infrastructure
  4. Digital First to harvest and orchestrate innovation and transformation activities to position CBSA as a leader in border services through the development of modern digital services to Canadians and industry partners

To deliver its Strategy, ISTB has identified three (3) internal priorities:

  1. Anti-Racism, Diversity, Women: continue building a safe and healthy workplace for a workplace for a workforce that represents Canadians
  2. Invest in our people: provide our employees with the tools and training they need to build a strong work culture and to support a workforce of the future
  3. Maturing our Branch Management Framework: review how we manage our branch business to improve client service, increase efficiency, enhance performance and ensure clarity of our processes

Internal Audit and Program Evaluation Directorate overview


Marianne Thouin, Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive (CAEE) and Senior Officer for Internal Disclosure (SOID)

  • Laura Matar, SD
    Internal Audit
  • Louise Grace, ED
    Program Evaluation and Internal Disclosure
  • Erek Barsczewski, Director
    Professional Practices

Branch priorities

The Internal Audit and Program Evaluation Directorate (IAPED)'s multi-year strategy outlines three (3) strategic priorities:

  1. Targeted and evidence-based assurance and assessments: provide independent assurance and evidence-based assessments of Agency programs, with the goal of improving the achievement of results and providing information to improve programs, policies and services
  2. Timely and relevant advice: provide timely and relevant advice to the Agency through its engagements, including audits, evaluations, reviews, studies and advisory services. Timely means products are communicated in an opportune and expedient way, depending on the significance of the issue, allowing management to take appropriate corrective action. Relevant means the advice is appropriate to the current circumstances and closely connected to Agency areas of high risk and significance
  3. Supporting a culture of integrity: provide CBSA employees with a confidential mechanism to report wrongdoing, outside of the chain of command, through the Office of the Senior Officer for Internal Disclosure (SOID). The SOID promotes a safe environment for disclosing wrongdoing consistent with the PSDPA, the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Sector, and the CBSA Code, and supports a culture of integrity in the Agency

Finance and Corporate Management Branch overview


Jonathan Moor, Vice-President (Chief Financial Officer)
Andrew Francis, Associate Vice-President (Associate Chief Financial Officer)

  • Brad Belanger, A/DG
    Planning and Resource Management
  • Jimmy Fecteau, Agency Comptroller and DG
    Agency Comptroller
  • Scott Taymun, DG
    Legislated Facilities Program Management Office
  • Catherine Parker, DG
    Major Projects Office, Custodial Ports of Entry
  • Charles Chenard, DG
    National Real Property and Accommodations
  • Natasha Alimohamed, DG
  • Pierre Lessard, Chief Security Officer and DG
    Security and Professional Standards
  • Stephanie Drouin
    Transformation and Innovation

Branch priorities

In collaboration with other supporting branches, the Finance and Corporate Management Branch (FCMB) will deliver on key initiatives for the Agency. Focusing on transformative, operational and program integrity, FCMB's priorities spanning the next 3 years include:

  1. Secure long term funding for the CBSA's sustainability and modernization (Spring, Fall and Winter budget cycles)
  2. Secure TB approval for the release of B21 Modernization funding
  3. Secure TB approval for the revised CARM R(2) project plan and support its delivery
  4. Deliver four new land POEs and advance plans for the Land Border Crossing Project
  5. Deliver the Recourse e-portal and prepare for the new External Review Body
  6. Lead Owner / Operator engagement on section 6 policies and progress the Gordie Howe International Bridge project
  7. Continue to improve financial management across the Agency
  8. Further strengthen the Integrated Business Planning process and enhance project management capability
  9. Improve business process efficiency and change management, with a focus on immigration/asylum
  10. Lead the internal COVID response and help deliver the Hybrid Work Model

The FCMB is also committed to supporting its partners in achieving other Agency and Government wide priorities while delivering on the core corporate and program responsibilities of the Branch.

CBSA governance overview

Visual overview

Figure 1
Figure 1 - Text version

Agency Governance Model – Four Levels

  • Level 1 (A): Executive Committee
    Sets and monitors the Agency's Vision, Priorities and Delivery Strategies
  • Level 1 (B): EC Sub-Committees (x7) - FIMC, ECHR, EPC, AOC, PMEC, LMC
    Executive Committee oversight on key functional items
  • Level 2: DG Committees (x4) - IPMC/PIC/CPMC/EADC
    Advice to, and delegated decision making from the EC Sub-Committees
  • Level 3: Functional Programs and Key Project Boards - CARM, LBCP, OneHR, Innovation etc.
    Management of Agency-wide Functional Programs and projects with PCRA Levels 3 and 4
  • Level 4: Branch and Regional (Delivery) Management Boards (x16) - Project Management Boards
    Oversight on delivery of IBPs and governance of projects with PCRA Levels 1 and 2
Figure 2
Figure 2 - Text version

CBSA Governance Framework

Level 1
DMs Chair Members: All VPs and the Senior General Counsel
Ex-Officio: DG IAPE and DG Communications
Secretariat: Executive Governance

  • Executive Committee (EC)
    Audit Committee (DAC) [DAC Secretariat: IAPED]
    • Agency Operations Committee (AOC)
    • Financial and Investment Management Committee (FIMC)
    • Executive Policy Committee (EPC)
    • Executive Committee Human Resources (ECHR)
    • Performance Measurement and Evaluation Committee (PMEC)
    • Litigation Management Committee (LMC)

Level 2
Members: One per Branch + Centers of Expertise
Secretariat: Executive Governance

  • Enterprise Analytics and Data Committee (EADC)
  • Investment and Project Management Committee (IPMC)
  • Policy and Innovation Committee (PIC)
  • Corporate Planning and Management Committee (CPMC)
Figure 3
Figure 3 - Text version

Annex A: Level 3 – Functional Programs and Key Project Boards

Examples of Level 3 Bodies

  • Travellers Business Line Management Board
  • Commercial and Trade Business Line Management Board
  • Intelligence and Enforcement Business Line Management Board
  • CBSA Architecture Review Board
  • CARM Business Readiness Implementation Board
  • One|HR
  • Gordie Howe International Bridge DG Steering Committee
  • Land Border Crossing Program Board
  • Director General Innovation Working Group
  • Project Management Boards - TBS Governed (PCRA Level 3 and 4)

Level 1 and level 2 committees

CBSA Governance: Level 1 committee mandates and authorities

Executive Committee (EC)


Sets the strategic direction and provide ongoing oversight for the management and the integrated business planning of the Agency; to ensure that objectives are met and adjusted as necessary; to ensure that information is shared and managed across the complex environment and many partners; to oversee priorities within a risk management context; and to establish a robust governance process.

  • Reviews/approves recommendations/proposals on major operational, planning cycle, program, litigation and management issues affecting the CBSA
  • Provides direction/approves recommendations on new/updated strategies, frameworks, plans, activities and other initiatives that support management of the Agency and CBSA programs and services
  • Reviews/approves recommendations or proposals on major corporate policy initiatives
  • Provides strategic planning direction and approves corporate plans (i.e. DP, DRR, BSM, etc)
  • Approves new business need proposals for corporate initiatives, strategies, policies, plans, priorities, risks and reports

Financial and Investment Management Committee (FIMC)


The mandate of the Financial and Investment Management Committee (FIMC) is to ensure senior executive-level oversight and decision-making on the strategic management of resources at the Agency-wide level through:

  • providing on-going oversight of the Agency's financial and human resources management including integrated business and investment planning within an enterprise risk management context
  • overseeing the stewardship of the Agency's human and financial resources
  • Serves as decision-making forum for the Agency regarding financial strategies, management and controls
  • Acts as strategic-level forum for decision-making related to priority setting, corporate and investment planning and financial reporting
  • Reviews/approves gating for CBSA capital projects, per approved thresholds (Annex C)
  • Reviews/approves gate approval for project budget or schedule referred by the IPMC where the project's total estimated cost or timeline has exceeded, or can reasonably be expected to exceed, the previously approved 15%
  • Reviews/approves a forward agenda based on Agency's integrated business planning/reporting cycle and priorities
  • FIMC may delegate specific decision-making authority to its sub-committee

Executive Committee Human Resources (ECHR)


Decision-making forum on all aspects of human resources (HR) management within the Agency with the exception of those decisions that have a financial implication. In the case where there is a financial implication, ECHR will make a recommendation to the Financial and Investment Management Committee (FIMC), which will be the responsible decision-making body on financial issues.

  • Decision-making forum to review/endorse HR strategies, management and controls; [functional authority remains with VP HRB]
  • Reviews and endorses/makes recommendations to FIMC on HR issues with a financial implication

Executive Policy Committee (EPC)


Responsible for shaping, influencing and approving the overall direction and development of strategic and program policy development.
To achieve this objective the EPC is responsible for the integrated oversight and alignment of the Agency's business in relation to program and operational policy and Cabinet, legislative and regulatory matters.

  • Approves recommendations/proposals on operational and program policy initiatives or changes as well as policy strategies, frameworks, and related plans, activities and instruments
  • Provides direction and/or approves proposed options in Agency-led MCs and official responses (such as Parliamentary committee responses)
  • Provides direction on proposed policies and/or responses to MCs originating from other government departments
  • May delegate or refer specific decision-making authority to another relevant committee for their consideration

Agency Operations Committee (AOC)


Responsible for integrated functional oversight in support of regional service delivery for the core Business Lines of the Agency. The AOC offers a platform to reconcile and integrate regional support, namely, the provision of functional direction regarding program priorities, strategies, plans, and outcomes requiring the integration of program and regional perspectives.

  • Resolves competing issues and enables effective service delivery and risk management
  • The AOC reconciles service delivery requirements based on pre-approved business plan and resource allocations (or re-allocations)established by FIMC, which fall under the current authorities of the Vice-President Travellers, Vice-President Commercial and Trade and Vice-President of Intelligence and Enforcement
  • Provides horizontal oversight on funding and resources to support decisions related to regional resource management and acts as a forum to discuss any program delivery variances and identify/recommend solutions for FIMC consideration

Performance Measurement and Evaluation Committee (PMEC)


In accordance with the Treasury Board (TB) Policy on Results (TB, 2016), the Performance Measurement and Evaluation Committee (PMEC), chaired by the President, is the senior executive body responsible for integrating and overseeing the performance measurement and evaluation functions at the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA).
The PMEC is responsible for providing advice and strategic recommendations to the President with respect to the implementation of the TB Policy on Results.

  • Approves PMEC forward agenda
  • Reviews/recommends approval of the President on key elements of an evaluation, i.e., scoping documents; and considering and responding to key evaluation-related issues
  • Review/endorsement to President of evaluation reports and summaries, including management responses and action plans
  • availability, quality, utility and use of performance information to support evaluations
  • the neutral assessment of the evaluation function
  • Advising the President on validity/reliability of Departmental Results Indicators in the DRF, including their usefulness for supporting evaluations

Litigation Management Committee (LMC)


Provides: direction on litigation identified as 'high impact' by the Agency; senior financial stewardship of litigation expenditures and reported liabilities; and, horizontal litigation management strategies for significant legal issues and risks arising from CBSA's legislation, regulations, operations, policies or procedures. In doing so, LMC ensures that CBSA's litigation management function is strategically placed within the broader context of the Government's mandate, commitments, and values.

  • Approves strategies and horizontal direction on the Agency's management of high impact litigation
  • Approves plans to ensure that litigation outcomes are reflected appropriately in policy, operations, legislation, and/or regulations
  • Approves the reporting of contingent liabilities and assets arising from litigation to the Receiver General of Canada

CBSA Governance: Level 2 committee mandates and authorities

Corporate Planning and Management Committee (CPMC)


Serves as a national, Director General level forum to enable and support horizontal planning, and the coordination and implementation of integrated business planning, national program reporting requirements, and the integration of corporate management requirements (in areas such as information management, IT planning, workforce planning and procurement), in order to strengthen results-based management within the Agency.

  • CPMC recommends/endorses best-practices and ways forward to the Executive Committee
  • CPMC acts as a catalyst to identify shared issues and challenges to operationalizing the Agency's agenda that cut across Program and Functional lines and require DG level horizontal collaboration and engagement to address, resolve and/or provide collective advice to the Vice Presidents and Executive Committee level governance on potential solutions

CPMC can report into various Level 1 Governance Committees depending on nature of the content:

  • i.e., AOC for Business Line IBPs, EC/PMEC for MAF
  • FIMC for internal service IBPs and Budget reallocations discussions between Programs
  • PMEC or EC for MAF, Enterprise Risks, DRF and Performance Measurement and Reporting related issues

Investment and Project Management Committee (IPMC)


Provides executive level oversight on the planning and management of the Agency's projects, programmes, and investment portfolio including assets and acquired services. The IPMC supports the achievement of outcomes within scope, cost, and schedule while ensuring the realization of the expected benefits. IPMC approves project gating achievement and change request based on thresholds and authorities.

  • approves, approves with conditions, or rejects project / programme gates / change requests within approved thresholds and provides recommendations to resolve issues
  • recommends corrective actions to FIMC on individual investments (as needed) and on systemic issues related to financial strategies, management and control

IPMC is accountable to the CBSA President and FIMC.

Policy and Innovation Committee (PIC)


Enables cross-Agency dialogue on emerging policy issues, preliminary policy options and the path forward. It provides Agency's main forum for collaboration, consideration and development of coherent policy proposals.

  • PIC prioritizes new proposals through early engagement on all policy and program related initiatives
  • recommends/endorses proposals for consideration at EPC and EC

PIC is accountable to the CBSA President and Executive Policy Committee.

Enterprise Analytics and Data Committee (EADC) New


The key decision making body for initiatives related to the implementation of the CBSA data strategy. EADC will oversee policies, procedures, and standards related to the data stewardship, management, and use of data and analytics.

  • DAC makes decisions related to implementation of elements of the data strategy and the day-to-day use of data in CBSA
  • EADC recommends/endorses proposals for consideration at EC
  • EADC may establish additional subcommittees/working groups to undertake specific tasks on its behalf with the approval of the DAC Chair

EADC is accountable to the CBSA President and EC.

Workforce snapshot

Pulse Check 5: Survey results

How are employees faring?

Presentation to Executive Committee Human Resources (ECHR)
Purpose: Share the results of the fifth Pulse Check survey

Participation rate and sample composition

Participation rate
  Pulse Check 1 Pulse Check 2 Pulse Check 3 Pulse Check 4 Pulse Check 5
In the field: May 5 to June 12 to Sept 28 to June 2 to January 5 to
Total number of completed surveys: 3,325 (21.5%) 3,602 (23.3%) 3,675 (23%) 3,751 (24%) 4,966 (30%)
Employees 2,600 2,840 2,886 3,030 3,821
Managers 622 660 689 610 982
Executives 103 102 100 111 162
Just over 16,000 invitations were sent to CBSA employees. The email included their unique link to the survey.

Overall agency participation: 30%

Participation rate by region
Region Rate (%)
Atlantic 31
Quebec 27
Northern Ontario 31
Greater Toronto Area 16
Southern Ontario 21
Prairie 30
Pacific 30
Participation rate by branch
Branch Rate (%)
Chief Transformation Officer 50
Commercial and Trade 42
Finance and Corporate Management 38
Human Resources 40
Information, Science and Technology 35
Intelligence and Enforcement 37
Internal Audit and Program Evaluation 44
Strategic Policy 36
Travellers 40
President's Office 20
Pulse Check 5: Sample composition by region
Region n= %
Atlantic 215 4.3
Quebec 527 10.6
Northern Ontario 199 4.0
Greater Toronto Area 363 7.3
Southern Ontario 307 6.2
Prairie 343 6.9
Pacific 572 11.5
Total 2,526 50.8
Pulse Check 5: Sample composition by branch
Branch n= %
Chief Transformation Officer 34 0.7
Commercial and Trade 262 5.3
Finance and Corporate Management 357 7.2
Human Resources 510 10.3
Information, Science and Technology 467 9.4
Intelligence and Enforcement 316 6.4
Internal Audit and Program Evaluation 27 0.5
Strategic Policy 266 5.4
Travellers 197 4.0
President's Office 4 0.1
Total 2,440 49.3
Pulse Check 5: Sample composition by type of employee
Are you … n= %
Employee 3,821 77
Manager 982 20
Executive 162 3
Total 4,965 100
Pulse Check 5: Sample composition by type of work
Public facing? n= %
Yes 1,844 37
No 3,121 63
Total 4,965 100
Pulse Check 5: Sample composition by type of schedule
Shift worker? n= %
Yes 1,214 24
No 3,701 75
Not sure 49 1
Total 4,964 100

Key considerations

For the most part, employees view the agency's performance during the pandemic in a positive light.

Satisfaction with the local context and immediate supervisor/manager is almost always more positive than perceptions of the overall agency or upper management.

Overall, positive perceptions are declining slowly which may indicate increasing expectations in the context of a "new normal".

Very significant differences in the perceptions at different levels of the agency.

Survey results: Supporting employees during the pandemic - How is the agency currently doing?

Figure 4
Figure 4 - Text version
Questions Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
I have access to the information I need about the impact of COVID-19 on our organization 23 47 14 10 6
I am provided with sufficient management support to continue being effective in my role 25 40 15 12 8
I am provided with the tools I need to continue being effective in my role 23 42 15 13 8
All things considered, we are working effectively as an organization 16 40 15 17 11

A majority of employees offer a positive assessment of the agency's efforts during the pandemic.

How is the agency doing? - Tracking results since
Pulse Check 1

Pulse Check 2

Pulse Check 3

Pulse Check 4

Pulse Check 5
I have access to the information I need about the impact of COVID-19 on the CBSA 80 79 75 74 70
I am provided with sufficient management support to continue being effective in my role 74 76 74 68 decrease 65
I am provided with the tools I need to continue being effective in my role 70 70 79 66 decrease 65
All things considered, we are working effectively as an organization 70 72 71 65 decrease 56 decrease
Percent "strongly agree" and "agree" for each statement.
How is the agency doing? - A comparison by type of employee
Questions Employees
Public facing
Non-public facing
Shift workers
Non-shift workers
I have access to the information I need about the impact of COVID-19 on the CBSA 67 77 91 increase 49 decrease 82 39 decrease 80
I am provided with sufficient management support to continue being effective in my role 64 67 83 increase 44 decrease 78 35 decrease 75
I am provided with the tools I need to continue being effective in my role 64 65 80 increase 44 decrease 76 36 decrease 74
All things considered, we are working effectively as an organization 56 56 74 increase 32 decrease 72 22 decrease 68
Percent "Strongly Agree" and "Agree"

Survey results: Managing the vaccine attestation policy - how did the agency do?

Figure 5
Figure 5 - Text version
Questions Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
I had access to the information I needed about the Policy on COVID-19 Vaccination for the Core Public Service 31 49 11 5 4
I believe that the agency managed the vaccine attestation process with empathy 24 33 24 8 11

A majority of employees are providing a positive assessment of the agency's management of the vaccine attestation.

Managing the vaccine attestation policy: A comparison by type of employee
Questions Employees
Public facing
Non-public facing
Shift workers
Non-shift workers
I had access to the information I needed about the Policy on COVID-19 Vaccination for the Core Public Service 78 87 93 66 decrease 89 60 decrease 87
I believe that the Agency managed the vaccine attestation process with empathy 54 64 75 40 decrease 67 33 decrease 65
Percent "Strongly Agree" and "Agree"

Survey results: Building trust through culture transformation - Where do we stand?

Figure 6
Figure 6 - Text version
Questions Strongly agree
Strongly disagree
I feel I can share my ideas, opinions, and concerns openly with my immediate supervisor/manager without fear of reprisal 40 36 9 8 7
I feel that I am trusted and I have the confidence of my immediate supervisor/manager 39 38 10 7 5
My immediate supervisor/manager takes responsibility to avoid the escalation of issues 34 37 14 9 6
I have confidence in the management team of my branch or region 20 33 18 14 14
My workplace protects my psychological well-being and psychological safety 20 30 20 14 16
Building trust: A comparison by type of employee
Questions Employees
Public facing
Non-public facing
Shift workers
Non-shift workers
I feel I can share my ideas, opinions, and concerns openly with my immediate supervisor/manager without fear of reprisal 73 85 91 63 84 57 82
I feel that I am trusted and I have the confidence of my immediate supervisor/manager 76 83 89 66 84 61 83
My immediate supervisor/manager takes responsibility to avoid the escalation of issues 68 77 89 57 79 50 77
I have confidence in the management team of my branch or region 50 58 90 32 66 24 63
My workplace protects my psychological well-being and psychological safety 49 50 65 29 62 21 59
Percent "Strongly Agree" and "Agree"

Survey results: Analysis of open-ended question

Tools and support needed to remain effective at work: A thematic analysis

  1. Work/life balance and autonomy
  2. Systems and resources
  3. Employee involvement and belonging
    "In the context of a post-pandemic workplace, what tools or support would you need to continue being effective in your role?"
  4. Better management/supervision
  5. Teamwork and collaboration
  6. Understanding and support of personal situations
  7. Burnout
  8. Physical safety and mental health

Note: The key emerging themes are presented above.

1) Work/life balance and autonomy
  • Largest proportion of responses
  • Most comments were positive, focused on benefits of working from home, and also mentioning worries about not being able to continue once the COVID-19 pandemic was over
2) Systems and resources
  • Resources included collaboration tools such as whiteboards, MS Teams, and workload management tools, laptops, headsets, ergonomic chairs, standing desks, better VPN, improved IT connectivity, and cell phones
  • Systems included clear processes for COVID testing travellers
3) Employee involvement and belonging
Included the need for resources such as MS Teams stay in touch with colleagues, being involved and consulted in management decisions around work operations, more and better communication from managers, more meetings with colleagues (including informal get-togethers) and managers/supervisors, trust from management, opportunities to provide input into decisions taken by leadership, and more co-working spaces
4) Better management/supervision
  • Broad ranging comments, some focusing on unclear communication and disrespect from managers/supervisors
  • Desire forbetter trained managers/supervisors
5) Teamwork and collaboration
  • Tools and technology to better assist employees, such as Apollo, MS Teams, and Outlook
  • Better communication and spaces for employees to connect and facilitate teamwork
6) Understanding and supporting of personal situations
  • Employees want to be understood, validated and supported (in the context of the pandemic)
  • Often embedded with comments around needing support, recognition, and empathy
7) Burnout
These comments identified the stress and anxiety that many felt during the pandemic, the need for timelines to be more flexible to accommodate added stress and larger workloads created by staffing shortages
8) Physical safety and mental health
  • Worries around physical and mental health were articulated
  • Physical environment included elements such as plexiglass barriers, PPE, enhanced ventilation, more cleaning products, physical distancing, and the ability to take masks off for periods of time
  • When physical safety and precautions were not being respected, some felt stressed and said that it impacted their mental health

Executive work and health study

Detailed findings

Executive Work and Health Study 2021
CBSA Reference: All responses in 2021 (n=4 136) / CBSA (n=114)

  • Overall
  • Physical
  • Mental
  • Lifestyle
CBSA Overall health Percent reporting (%)
Excellent/Very good 43
Good 38
Fair/Poor 19
Individual health: Overall

Question 37. In general, would you say your health is…?

  Fair/Poor (%) Good (%) Excellent/Very good (%)
EX01/02 18 36 46
EX03 18 35 46
EX04-DM 14 28 58
  Fair/Poor (%) Good (%) Excellent/Very good (%)
Remaining respondents 15 35 46
EE groups 27 38 36
Chronic health conditions 2021 (%) 2017 (%) 1997 (%)
Cardiovascular 11 14 16
Musculoskeletal 35 45 19
Gastro-intestinal 15 18 9
Respiratory 1 1 12

Overall health has declined. Yet chronic health conditions have improved.

Overall health Fair/Poor (%) Good (%) Excellent/ Very good (%)
2021 18 35 47
2017 12 31 57
2012 13 30 57
2007 9 30 61
2002 11 30 60
CBSA overall health Percent reporting (%)
Excellent/Very good 43
Good 38
Fair/Poor 19
  Increases likelihood (%)
High level of resilience 88
High level of supervisor support 26
High level of recovery 15
  Reduces likelihood (%)
Negative work / home interference 34
High level of incivility 28
Lack of recognition 27

Organizational culture impacts overall health.

Negative work / home interference reduces the likelihood of good health.

Individual health: Mental health
  2021 (%) 2017 (%)
Excellent / Very good 38 54
Fair / Poor 26 15

Question 38. In general, how is your mental health?

CBSA individual mental health
Mental health Percentage of responses (%)
Excellent/Very good 29
Good 50
Fair/Poor 21

Mental health has declined overall.

1 in 9 executives (13%) were diagnosed with anxiety in 2021. 1 in 15 (7%) were diagnosed with depression.

  Overall (%) EX01/02 Women EX01/02 EE
Overall Mental Health 38 -3 -9
Mental Health Diagnoses 17 +4 +11
Workplace factor impacting mental health Increases likelihood (%)
High level of resilience 315
High level of recovery 77
High levels of supervisor support 36
High levels of inclusion 34
Workplace factor impacting mental health Reduces likelihood (%)
Negative work/home interference 53
Lack of recognition 40
Counselling issue 2021 (%) 2017 (%)
Personal 16 15
Work related 15 15

Again, we see the protective affect of Resilience and the impact of Negative / work home interference on individual health.

Individual health: Physical health - Lifestyle
Sleep habits Yes (%)
Often have trouble sleeping 32
Often find sleep refreshing 41
Often find it difficult to stay awake 56
Smoking and Drinking 2021 (%) 2022 (%)
Tobacco use 5 6
Binge drinker once a month 7 n/a
Cannabis use 15 n/a

Lifestyle choices improve. Executives limit tobacco and alcohol use and stay active. Sleep patterns need attention.

  Average (%) EX01/02 EX03 EX04+ EX01/02 women EX01/02 EE groups
Physical activity 62 +2 +2 +6 -2 -5
BMI overweight 32 +2 -2 -5 -2 +4
Physical activity is according to Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines
  • Job satisfaction
  • Engagement
  • Commitment
  • Burnout and Exhaustion
  • Cynicism
  • Intent to Leave
Organizational health: Overall

Inclusion stands out as the most potent factor in organizational health.

Factors that increase organizational health (Ranked)
Outcome Inclusion Resilience Supervisor support Recovery Psychological safety
Job satisfaction 1 2 3 4 5
Engagement 2 1 3 >5 >5
Commitment 1 3 2 >5 >5
Factors that reduce organizational health (Ranked)
Outcome Inclusion Resilience Supervisor support Recovery Psychological safety
Cynicism 1 2 3 4 5
Intent to leave 1 3 2 5 4
Exhaustion 4 1 3 2 >5
Organizational health: Job satisfaction
Components of job satisfaction (ranked)
  2021 2017
Job security 4.1 4
Tasks 3.8 3.8
Pay 3.1 3.2
Career goals 2.9 3.2
Hours 2.7 3
Workload 2.7 2.8

Question 12. What is your level of satisfaction with the following aspects of your work (1), unsatisfied (2), neither (3), satisfied (4), very satisfied (5)

Job security is increasing in importance.

Job satisfaction EX01/02 (%) EX03 (%) EX04-DM (%)
Low 23 21 15
High 77 79 85
Job satisfaction EE groups (%) Overall (%)
Low 24 22
High 76 78
CBSA overall job satisfaction level
Job satisfaction Response (%)
Low 14
High 86
Organizational health: Engagement

Engagement is the direct opposite of burnout.

Overall (%)
Disengaged 2
Moderate 50
Engaged 47
By level
  EX01/02 (%) EX 03 (%) EX04-DM (%)
Disengaged 3 1 1
Moderate 52 47 35
Engaged 45 52 64
By age
  30 to 39 (%) 40 to 49 (%) 50 to 59 (%) 60+ (%)
Disengaged 2 3 2 2
Moderate 52 53 50 35
Engaged 46 47 48 63
CBSA overall engagement level
Level Percent reporting (%)
Disengaged 2
Moderate 41
Engaged 57
Question 2021 (%) 2017 (%)
At my work, I feel bursting with energy 43 45
At my job, I feel strong and vigorous 49 56
When I get up in the morning, I feel like going to work 57 62
Question 2021 (%) 2017 (%)
I am enthusiastic about my job 68 70
My job inspires me 61 60
I am proud of the work that I do 88 86
Question 2021 (%) 2017 (%)
I feel happy when I am working intensely 67 72
I am immersed in my work 80 76
I get carried away when I am working 55 45

Question 14. Please read each statement carefully and decide if you ever feel this way about your job.

Organizational health: Commitment
  2021 (%) 2017 (%) 2012 (%) 2007 (%)
High 57 57 52 65
  EX01/02 (%) EX 03 (%) EX04-DM (%)
Low 44 41 35
High 56 59 65
  EE groups (%)
Low 46
High 54

Overall Commitment levels have stayed stable.

Executives in equity-seeking groups report lowest levels.

CBSA overall commitment level
Commitment Percent reporting (%)
Low 38
High 62
Organizational health: Burnout and exhaustion
  2021 (%) 2012 (%) 2007 (%)
None 1 8 7
Mild 25 67 71
Severe 75 25 22
  Never (%) Mild (%) Severe (%)
EX01/02 1 25 75
EX 03 0.4 24 76
EX04-DM 0.4 29 70
  Never (%) Mild (%) Severe (%)
Male 10 51 40
Female 8 53 38
CBSA burnout / Exhaustion levels
Burnout / Exhaustion factor Percent reporting (%)
Never 0
Mild 23
Severe 77

Burnout includes two dimensions: Exhaustion and Cynicism.

Organizational health: Cynicism
By level
  Never (%) Mild (%) Severe (%)
EX01/02 8 52 40
EX 03 10 53 37
EX04/05 18 57 25
By gender
  Never (%) Mild (%) Severe (%)
Male 10 51 40
Female 8 53 39
  Never (%) Mild (%) Severe (%)
EE Groups 9 53 38

Question 29. Over the past 12 months how have you felt about your work? Please indicate the response that most applies to you.

CBSA Cynicism levels
Factor Percent Reporting (%)
Never 11
Mild 54
Severe 35

39% of executives have high levels of cynicism.

Organizational health: Intent to leave

Overall rate of Intent to Leave is 53%.

By level
  EX01/02 (%) EX 03 (%) EX04-DM (%)
Never 47 51 54
Regularly 53 49 46
By gender
  Male (%) Female (%)
Never 49 47
Regularly 51 53
  Overall EX01/02 EX03 EX04-DM
Work/home interference 35% -1 +5 +6

Work/home interference has the most powerful impact on intent to leave.
Mitigating factors are: supervisor support, recognition, resilience and inclusion.

CBSA Intent to leave rate
Rate Percent Reporting (%)
Never 52
Regularly 48
  • Hours of work
  • Leave
  • Stress and stressfulness
  • Negative work / Home interference
  • Psychological safety
  • Harassment
Work environment: Work hours and high risk hours

By job level

  Mean work: Hours per week
EX-1/EX-2 49
EX-3 53
EX-4-DM 56
  Percentage working more than 55 hours per week (%)
EX-1/EX-2 14
EX-3 25
EX-4-DM 40
  Overall average (%)
More than 55 Hours per week 18

Executives average 50 work hours a week.

1 in 5 work more than 55 hours – the burnout threshold.

CBSA Work hours mean / Week
Min Median Mean Max
30 50 51 85
CBSA High risk work hours
  Percentage of responses (%)
false 78
True 22
Work environment: Leave
Annual leave
  2021 2017
Annual 19% 23%
Mean days 11.4 11.1
Sick leave
2021 3.7
2017 5.9
2012 5.3
  Presenteeism (%)
2021 92
2017 68
2012 47
  Work most or all of the time while sick (%)
EE 29
Women 26
Men 20

Presenteeism is at the highest levels ever particularly for equity seeking groups.

CBSA sick leave / 12 month mean
Min Mean Max
0 3.4 80
CBSA other leave / 12 month mean
Min Mean Max
0 1.9 45
Work environment: Stress and stressfulness
  2021 (%) 2017 (%) Private sector (%)
Most days are extremely/ quite stressful 56 51 38
High level of stress 47 44 46
  Overall (%) EX-4-DM EX-1/EX-2
Stress level 47 +6 +3 +2
Workday stress 56 +3 +2 +3
Daily stress 47 +6 +3 +2

Stress is the corner stone concept of the Health Study Model.

CBSA self rated stress level
Self rated stress Responses (%)
Not at all/Not very 6
A bit 45
Quite a bit/Extremely 49
Work environment: Negative work / Home interference
  Low (%) Moderate (%) High (%)
EX-1/EX-2 15 53 32
EX-3 10 50 40
EX-4-DM 8 50 42
  Low (%) Moderate (%) High (%)
Men 16 54 30
Women 11 51 38

35% of respondents reported high work home interference.

CBSA negative work / Home interference
Work / Home factor Responses (%)
Low 9
Moderate 56
High 35
Work environment: Psychological safety

Psychological safety is measured by levels of trust, comfort, and collaboration among management teams.

Job level was found to be strongly associated with psychological safety.

  High psychological safety (%)
Overall 60
EX-1/EX-2 58
EX-3 66
EX-4-DM 73
CBSA Psychological safety levels
Psychological safety Responses (%)
False 36
True 64
Work environment: Harassment overview

Harassment is the most toxic factor to health. In 2021, the level of harassment reached 12%.

The benchmark is 8%.

  EX-1/ EX-2 (%) EX03 (%) EX04-DM (%)
False 89 87 88
True 11 14 12
  EE (%)
False 81
True 19
  Men (%) Women (%)
False 91 86
True 9 14
Source Percent (%)
Superiors 54
Co-workers 28
Subordinates 27
CBSA harassment level
Experienced harassment Responses (%)
False 87
True 13
  Overall (%) EX01/02 EX03 EX04-DM EX01/02
Respect 92 0 0 -1 -1 -4
Inclusion 75 -2 +4 +12 -3 -10
Lack of Recognition 69 0 0 -7 +1 +5
Resilience 61 -1 +5 +7 0 -7
Recovery 47 +2 -5 -5 +2 -3
Social support 75 0 +3 -1 +2 +5
Organizational culture: Social support

Social support is an effective buffer against stress.

Supervisor support (mean)
1997 2002 2007 2012 2017 2021
3.6 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9
Colleague support (mean)
1997 2002 2007 2012 2017 2021
3.9 2.9 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.1
Social support (average)
Overall EX03 EX04+ EX01/02
EE Group
75% +3 -1 +2 +5
CBSA level of social support
Social support Percent reporting (%)
Low 22
High 78
Organizational culture: Effort – Reward imbalance

The imbalance between high effort and low reward is a key driver of stress.

By level
  Imbalance (%)
Overall 69
EX01/02 70
EX03 69
EX04/05/DM 64
By gender
  Imbalance (%)
Male 68
Female 71
By EE group
  Imbalance (%)
EE Groups 76
Remaining respondents 68
CBSA rate of effort / Reward imbalance
Effort / Reward recognition Percent reporting (%)
Imbalance 82
None 18
Organizational culture: Respect and civility

2021 saw a shift from overt bullying to microaggressions, including omissions, in the online environment.

Type Supervisor (%) Employees (%) Peers (%)
Put you down or condescending to you 20 20 24
Demeaning, rude, derogatory remarks 7 9 8
Addressed you unprofessionally 8 19 12
Made jokes at your expense 8 10 11
Yelled, shouted, or swore at you 3 6 4
  Percent reporting (%)
EE Groups 13
Other colleagues 7

Question 21. In the past 6 months, how often has your own supervisor behaved in the following ways during work?

CBSA overall workplace civility
Overall workplace incivility Percent reporting (%)
Disrespectful 13
Respectful 87
Organizational culture: Recovery

Given the level of burnout/exhaustion among executives, the time available for recovery is below the levels that would enable them to recharge their energy.

By level
  Low (%) High (%)
Overall 51 49
EX01/EX02 51 49
EX03 57 43
EX04-DM 58 42
All EX01/EX02 EX03 EX04-DM EX01/EX02
47% +2 -5 -5 -2 -3
CBSA level of recovery
Rate Percent reporting (%)
Low 69
High 31
Organizational culture: Resiliency

Resiliency is the capacity to renew one's energy.

The lowest rates for resilience are in equity seeking groups.

  Low (%) High (%)
EX01/02 40 60
EX03 34 66
EX04-DM 33 67
  Low (%) High (%)
Overall 39 61
EE group 46 54
Percentage agree 2021 (%) 2017 (%)
I bounce back quickly 74 64
I have a hard time making it through 30 11
It does not take me long to recover 62 57
It is hard for me to snap back 38 16
I usually come through with little trouble 61 60
I take a long time to get over set-backs 29 13

Question 28. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.

CBSA level of resiliency
Resilience Percent reporting (%)
Low 31
High 69
Organizational culture: Inclusion

Inclusion is the most potent factor.

Yet, 1 in 4 of executives report a lack of inclusion.

By level
  High inclusion (%) Lack of inclusion (%)
EX01/02 73 27
EX03 78 22
EX04-DM 88 12
Inclusion factor
  Indigenous people (%) Other racialized communities (%) Persons with disabilities (%) Benchmark (%)
Sense of belonging 75 72 68 80
Voice at the table 65 59 52 70
Role in decision making 70 65 61 60
Opportunities and resources 63 60 56 82

Question 25. To what extent do you agree or disagree to the following statements?

CBSA level of inclusion
Level of inclusion Percent reporting (%)
Low 4
Medium 18
High 79
  • Biggest challenges
  • Executive concerns
Preparedness for the future: Executives were asked

What do you think is the single biggest challenge facing the Federal Government in the next five years?

What do you think is the single biggest challenge facing the executive community in the federal public service in the next five years?

Sample profile: Overall

The results and findings can be generalized with confidence to the entire executive community.

Level by gender
  Male (%) Female (%)
All 46 54
EX01/02 45 55
EX03 51 49
EX04-DM 52 48
EE groups 44 56
Level by age
  < 5 (%) 5 to 9 (%) 10 to 19 (%) 20 to 29 (%) 30+ (%)
All 32 35 31 3 0
EX01/02 40 38 21 1 0
EX03 8 30 56 6 0.3
EX04-DM 4 12 74 10 1
Women 43 38 18 1 -
EE groups 39 36 24 2 0.2
Years as executive
  30 to 39 (%) 40 to 49 (%) 50 to 59 (%) 60+ (%)
All 5 44 44 6
EX01/02 7 48 40 5
EX03 2 34 56 8
EX04-DM 0.4 29 57 13
Sample profile: Profile of respondents
Indigenous Peoples: By level
EX01/02 EX03 EX04-DM
73% 22% 4%
Indigenous Peoples: Years as EX
< 5 5 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 29
39% 31% 28% 2%
Members of a racialized community: By level
EX01/02 EX03 EX04-DM
72% 18% 5%
Members of a racialized community: Years as EX
< 5 5 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 29
34% 34% 29% 2%
Persons with disabilities: By level
EX01/02 EX03 EX04-DM
69% 20% 5%
Persons with disabilities: Years as EX
< 5 5 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 29
26% 33% 36% 5%
Language of work
Both 34 45 19 34 7 8 59 17
English 65 53 81 64 93 92 7 83
French 1 1 0 2 0 0 34 0
Sample profile: Level and Public Service experience
With Federal Public Service
Less than a year to 5 years 6 to 10 years 11 to 15 years 16 to 20 years 20+ years Mean
2% 6% 16% 25% 51% 22 years
As an Executive
Less than a year to 5 years 6 to 10 years 11 to 15 years 16 to 20 years 20+ years Mean
33% 39% 19% 7% 1% 7 years

Public Service Employee Survey (PSES) results

Note: APR - Average Positive Response Rate

Overall CBSA PSES Results

Key highlights

The CBSA's participation rate continues to increase every year, but is still a challenge due to its operational reality.

Overall, CBSA continues to achieve better results each year, but we continue to lag the PS average. This is aligned to other Public Safety Portfolio organizations.

Our operational reality during COVID-19 contributes to the highlighted sources of stress, or factors which contributed to the quality of work.

Our frontline, which represents 60% of our population, experienced the Pandemic differently from our office employees, who were able to work from home.

2020 PSES overall results

Source: 2019 PSES vs. 2020 PSES

  • Number of CBSA Responses: increase 7,923
    Increase of 650 respondents compared to 2019 PSES.
  • Percentage of CBSA Response Rate: increase 51.8%
    Increase of 2.4% points from 2019. Participation rate has increased three years in a row.
  • Questions Improvement Rate: 90.8%
    Overall, CBSA achieved better results on 79 out of 87 common questions from 2019.
  • Average Positive Response Rate: increase 61.8%
    Increase of 4.16% points over 2019. CBSA moved up by 1 position in the departmental PSES APR ranking.

2020 PSES included over 122 questions based on 6 main themes

Organizational performance and stress at work

Source: 2020 PSES

Factors impacting quality of work:

  1. Too many approval stages
  2. Overly complicated or unnecessary business processes
  3. Constantly changing priorities
  4. Having to do the same or more work, but with fewer resources

Main causes of stress at work:

  1. Risk of exposure to COVID-19
  2. Not enough employees to do the work
  3. Balancing work and caregiving responsibilities
  4. Balancing work and personal life
CBSA APR comparison 2020 PSES

Source: 2020 PSES

Similar mandate organization:

  • CSC: 55.8
  • CSIS: 61.6
  • CBSA: 61.8
  • Public Safety: 68.0
  • DND: 68.3
  • RCMP: 68.5

Similar size organizations: >5,000+ employees:

  • GAC: 64.5
  • DFO: 66.7
  • PS: 69.5
  • IRCC: 70.4
  • ESDC: 70.9
  • PSPC: 73.4

Historically, Public Safety Portfolio organizations tend to have lower APRs when compared to others in the PS.

Note: Department of National Defense (DND) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) only survey their civilian population – direct comparison is therefore not possible.

CBSA PSES trend: APR and Response Rate

Source: 2018 to 2020 PSES

CBSA's APR has increased by 9.6% point from the 2018 PSES, closing the gap with the Public Service by 3.7% points.

  2018 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
CBSA APR 52.2 57.6 61.8
PS APR 63.6 67.4 69.5
CBSA Response Rate 43.4 49.4 51.8

Culture Performance Measures

Key highlights

Important to recognize that PSES provides a good snapshot of culture symptoms, but we have to drill down to the root cause level to determine how to effectively respond.

This is the first year that the Agency has other data sources (Culture Diagnostic, results of Agency pulse check surveys) to rely on as we receive this year's PSES. We are better equipped to address the results in a deeper and ningful way.

Positive trajectory of PSES scores may be attributed to efforts invested in our transformation. Further engagement/analysis needed to gain this insight.

Important to learn how much of the sentiment of shift workers is attributed to the pandemic.

Question 78. I would describe my workplace as psychologically healthy
  2018 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
CBSA 42 46 55
Non shift-workers 49 54 65
Shift-workers 30 32 33

Culture PMF Target: 50% APR for the agency. Target achieved. Gap between shift workers and non-shift workers is 32% points in 2020. Gap between shift workers and Culture PMF Target is 17% points in 2020.

Question 50. I would recommend my department or agency as agreat place to work
  2018 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
CBSA 43 51 57
Non shift-workers 46 54 64
Shift-workers 37 46 42

Net Promoter Score: -15 (vs -27 in 2019) - Target Achieved (Target: -17) Overall, we are moving positively. However, amongst the shift worker, there is a decline of 4% points.

Question 40. I feel I can initiate a formal recourse process (for example, grievance, complaint, appeal) without fear of reprisal.
  2018 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
CBSA Positive 37 41 44
Neutral 19 18 18
Negative 44 41 38
Non shift worker Positive 39 43 49
Neutral 21 20 20
Negative 40 37 31
Shift worker Positive 33 37 35
Neutral 16 15 14
Negative 51 48 51

Culture PMF Target: 51% APR. Target not achieved. Gap between the two populations widened from 6% points to 14% points. Gap between shift workers and Culture PMF Target is 16% points in 2020.

Question 32. I have confidence in the senior management of my department or agency
  2018 (%) 2019 (%) 2020 (%)
CBSA 35 44 51
Non shift-workers 41 51 61
Shift-workers 23 32 29

Culture PMF Target: 50% APR. Target achieved. Gap between the two populations grew from 19% points to 32% points. Gap between shift workers and Culture PMF Target is 21% points in 2020.

Keeping the focus on key areas

Source: 2020 PSES Results CBSA vs. Public Service.

Improvements overall, but still behind Public Service

While the Agency's 2020 results improved for all these questions, they still lag substantially behind the overall Public Service results, and the Agency's priorities remain the same as in previous years.

Areas of focus / Challenges (PS vs. CBSA)

Employee Engagement

CBSA's biggest result gaps vs. the Public Service (PS) are related to employee engagement.

  • I would recommend my department or agency as a great place to work
    PS 75% pt. vs. CBSA 57% pt. (-18) (Gap reduced by +1)
  • I am satisfied with my department or agency
    PS 75% pt. vs. CBSA 59% pt. (-16) (Gap reduced by +4)

Leadership (Senior Management)

Four questions in the -16 to -17 range relate to senior management.

  • I have confidence in the senior management of my department or agency
    PS 68% pt. vs. CBSA 51% pt. (-17) (Gap reduced by +1)
  • Senior management in my department or agency makes effective and timely decisions
    PS 60% pt. vs. CBSA 43% pt. (-17) (No Gap Closed)
  • Senior managers in my department or agency lead by example in ethical behaviour
    PS 73% pt. vs. CBSA 57% pt. (-16) (No Gap Closed)
  • Essential information flows effectively from senior management to staff
    PS 61% pt. vs. CBSA 45% pt. (-16) (Gap Increased -1)

Harassment and Discrimination

  • My department or agency works hard to create a workplace that prevents harassment
    PS 71% pt. vs. CBSA 54% pt. (-17) (No Gap Closed)
  • My department or agency works hard to create a workplace that prevents discrimination
    PS 73% pt. vs. CBSA 59%pt. (-14) (Gap reduced by +1)
  • I am satisfied with how matters related to harassment are resolved in my department or agency
    PS 56% pt. vs. CBSA 42% pt. (-14) (No Gap Closed)
  • I am satisfied with how matters related to discrimination are resolved in my department or agency
    PS 60% pt. vs. CBSA 47% pt. (-13) (Gap Increased -1)

Employee Development

5 questions in the -14 to -18 range relate to Job fit and employee development.

  • My department or agency does a good job of supporting employee career development
    PS 61% pt. vs. CBSA 46% pt. (-15) (Gap reduced by +3)
  • I get the training I need to do my job
    PS 73% pt. vs. CBSA 61% pt. (-12) (Gap reduced by +2)
  • To what extent have the following adversely affected your career progress in the federal public service over the last 12 months? Lack of access to learning opportunities
    PS 74% pt. vs. CBSA 62% pt. (-12) (Gap reduced by +2)

Annex A: Key PSES themes – CBSA overview

Overview of themes by improvements
  CBSA 2020 (%) PS 2020 (%)
Workforce increase 5.7 increase 2.9
Sub-themes   (Avg. answer count: 7857)
Empowerment increase 7.0 increase 3.5
Job fit and development increase 4.4 increase 2.2
Performance management increase 5.7 increase 3.0
Work-life balance and workload increase 4.7 increase 2.7
  CBSA 2020 (%) PS 2020 (%)
Workplace increase 5.9 increase 4.1
Sub-themes   (Avg. answer count: 7480)
Anti-racism 55.8table note 1 60.8table note 1
Discrimination increase 2.3 increase 2.3
Diversity and inclusion increase 3.5 increase 2.2
Duty to accommodate decrease 0.5 increase 2.0
Ethical workplace increase 3.5 increase 3.3
Harassment increase 3.3 increase 3.3
Organizational goals increase 4.5 increase 3.5
Organizational performance increase 6.0 increase 4.6
Physical environment and equipment increase 6.8 increase 1.2
Use of Official Languages increase 11.5 increase 12
  CBSA 2020 (%) PS 2020 (%)
Leadership increase 6.1 increase 5.1
Sub-themes   (Avg. answer count: 7873)
Immediate supervisor increase 5.3 increase 3.0
Senior management increase 6.8 increase 6.8
Employee engagement
  CBSA 2020 (%) PS 2020 (%)
Employee engagement increase 4.3 increase 3.1
Sub-themes   (Avg. answer count: 7852)
Employee engagement (being valued at work, being proud of thework, etc.) increase 4.3 increase 3.1
  CBSA 2020 (%) PS 2020 (%)
Compensation decrease 18.2 decrease 19.2
Sub-themes   (Avg. answer count: 4579)
Pay or other compensation issues decrease 5.7 decrease 8
Support to resolve pay or other compensation issues 29table note 1 29table note 1
Workplace well-being
  CBSA 2020 (%) PS 2020 (%)
Workplace well-being increase 2.2 increase 2.0
Sub-themes   (Avg. answer count: 7557)
A psychologically healthy workplace increase 5.3 increase 6.3
A safe and healthy workplace 68.8table note 1 77.2table note 1
Work-related stress increase 1.0 decrease 0.9
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